Bangladesh child marriage law puts girls at risk of abuse and rape say charities

Bangladesh Child Marriage 2
Fatema, 15, at her home in Khulna. Fatema was saved from being married. The local child protection committee members stopped the marriage with the help of law enforcement agencies. (UNICEF/Khan)

Barriers to education, Child marriage, Girls' education, Right to education

Early marriage causes millions of girls to drop out of school - but a new law allowing girls to marry under 18 in "special cases" has been criticised by an alliance of charities.

A new Bangladeshi law that lets under-age girls marry their rapists for “the greater good of the adolescent” may put more children at risk of sexual abuse, child rights groups said yesterday.

The impoverished South Asian nation has one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world, despite laws banning marriage for girls under 18 and men under 21. 

Legitimising marriage for young rape victims in the name of “honour” does nothing to protect their body or rights, the advocates said.

“We are concerned that this new act could lead to widespread abuse, legitimise statutory rape, allow parents to force their girls to marry their rapists and further encourage the practice
of child marriage in a country with one of the highest child marriage rates in the world,” said a statement from Girls Not Brides Bangladesh, an alliance of charities.

Bangladesh Child Marriage 1

Parveen (left) is a health worker in Dhaka, Bangladesh, who supports pregnant women in her communities. She is part of the Manoshi project, run by BRAC with support from UK aid. BRAC is a member of Girls Not Brides Bangladesh. (Ricci Coughlan / DFID)

The charities issued the statement two days after legislators amended Bangladesh’s marriage laws to let under-18s wed in “special cases” for “the greater good of the adolescent” and with parental and court consent.

The child rights groups said the provision does not define “special cases” or “greater good” – leaving the law open to interpretation or to legitimise statutory rape.

The consent provision would also not prevent children being forced into marriage, said the alliance statement.

“The need to protect the ‘honour’ of girls who have become pregnant was widely cited by the Bangladesh government as the reason for this provision. However marriage is not the best way
to protect adolescent girls and exposes them to greater harm.”

A senior Bangladeshi government official denied the provision would lead to more abuse, saying lawmakers had taken into account the social context of life in a majority Muslim
nation, and that protection mechanisms were in place.

“Considering the reality of our society, the special provision has been incorporated,” said an official from the Women and Child Affairs Ministry, who did not wish to be named. “No one will be able to marry without court permission.”

What is Girls Not Brides Bangladesh?

The alliance was launched in 2013 and became an official Girls Not Brides National Partnership in 2014. 

It has over 20 members, ranging from small grassroots organisations to country offices of larger international NGOs including World Vision and Plan International.

Along with Niger, Guinea, South Sudan, Chad and Burkina Faso, Bangladesh is among the 10 countries with the highest incidence of child marriage, despite moves to strengthen law enforcement and toughen penalties against the crime.

According to data from Girls Not Brides, 52% of girls in Bangladesh are married before the age of 18 – the highest in South Asia – compared to 47% in India, 37% in Nepal and 33%in Afghanistan.

Campaigners say girls face a greater risk of rape, domestic violence and forced pregnancy as a result of being child brides.

The girls are often denied the chance to go to school, are isolated from society and forced into a lifetime of economic dependence as a wife and mother.

Yet the practice continues largely due to a combination of social acceptance and government inaction, activists say.

Girls Not Brides said the changes to the law would effectively mean that Bangladesh has a “zero minimum age of marriage”.

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